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Library, Research, & Citation Help: Research Tutorials & Citation Help

Searching Library Databases

A database is a collection of sources including books, ebooks, magazines, journals, and newspapers. The short video below describes how to run a search in FiSH. FiSH (First, Search Here), searches most of the library resources using one simple search box. To access FiSH, visit the Library Home Page.

More video tutorials available on the Lakeland Library Youtube Page.

MLA Examples


Ashour, Radwa, Ferial J. Ghazoul and Hasna Reda-Mekdashi, eds. Arab Women Writers: A

        Critical Reference Guide, 1873-1999. American University, 2008.

Billings, Michael. “The Doctor and Amy Pond: A Bedtime Story.” Language of

Doctor Who: From Shakespeare to Alien Tongues, edited by Jason Barr and Camille D.G. Mustachio, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014, pp. 231-243.

Gall, Timothy L., editor. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. 4 vols. Gale, 1997.

Knowlson, James. Damned to Fame: the Life of Samuel Beckett. Simon & Schuster, 1996.       

Li, Peter, Marjorie H. Lee, and Steven Mark, editors. Culture and Politics, China: An Anatomy of Tiananmen Square. Transaction Publishers, 2007.

Ebooks/Electronic Books

Armstrong, David. Revolution and World Order: The Revolutionary State in International Society. Oxford University Press, 1993.

                     OhioLINK Ebook Center, docId=tei/ox/0198275285/0198275285.xml;query=;brand=default.

                    13 November 2017.

  Hodge, Bob and Louie Kam. The Politics of Chinese Language and Culture: The Art of Reading Dragons. Routledge, 

                      1998. EbscoEbooks, 19 December 2017.



Sakhrani, Bhavna. “Long Used by Australian Aborigines for Healing, Emu Oil Is Increasingly in Demand to Treat a  Range of Ailments.” South China Morning Post,
       21 January 2014, p. 8. LexisNexis Academic,

Kearns, Landess. Coconut Crab Claw Strength Rivals Lion’s Bite, Study Shows. Huffington Post, 29 November 2016,

 Jarboe, Michelle. "Mortgage Defaults on Rise as Unemployment Increases." Plain Dealer, 21 Aug. 2009, p. A1+. 


Gardner, Lisa A. "Wat 2 Do Abt Txt'n & Drv'n (Aka: What To Do About The Problem Of Texting While Driving?)." CPCU Ejournal vol. 63, no.11, 2010, pp.1-13.

       Academic Search Complete.

   Stein, Joel. "Less Vegas." Time, 24 Aug. 2009, pp. 23-29.

Academic Journals

Luneberry, Clarke. “Suspicious Silence: Walking Out on John Cage.” Current Musicology, Vol. 94, Fall, 2012, pp.127-142. Humanities International Complete.

Hirschberger, Gilad, et al. "Attachment, Marital Satisfaction, and Divorce during the First Fifteen Years of Parenthood." Personal Relationships 16.3 (2009): 401-420.
       Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. .

Haskins, Rob. "Aspects of Zen Buddhism as an Analytical Context for John Cage's Chance Music." Contemporary Music Review, vol. 33, no. 5/6, Oct-Dec2014, pp.
       616-629. Academic Search Complete, doi:10.1080/07494467.2014.998426.



Larson, Larry, project lead, Didier Garcia, art direction & design, Jack Freudenheim, programming. John Cage. The John
       Cage Trust, 1993-2017, Accessed 13 February 2016.

“Bipolar disorder.” National Institute of Mental Health. National Institutes of Health, April 2016, Accessed 23 February 2017.

Henriksen, Arve. Arve Henriksen. 2015, Accessed 17 April 2016.


Lennon, John. Interview. Jim Ladd Innerviews, YouTube, 10 October 1974.

Trump, Donald. Personal Interview. 24 Jan. 2017.


Chusid, Ron. “Betsy DeVos Joins Donald Trump's Bizarro World Cabinet.” Liberal Values, 8 February 2017, Accessed 26 February 2017.








@George Takei. “You can't be "a country united against hate" when your AG is a racist, your VP attacks LGBTs, and your top advisor is a White Nationalist.” Twitter, 28
       Feb. 2017, 9:27 p.m.,


Bernie Sanders. “Yesterday, President Trump said, 'Nobody ever knew health care could be so complicated.' Well, some of us had an idea. When you provide health
       care to 320 million people - yeah, it is a complicated subject. Maybe now, Trump and the Republicans can get beyond the rhetoric and address the fact that we
       remain the only country on Earth not to guarantee health care to all people as a right, not a privilege.” Facebook, 28 Feb. 2017, 2:09 p.m.,

Text Message

Hyland, Thomas. Text Message. Received by Michael Billings. 13 November 2016.


Toutant-Beauregard, Pierre Gustave. “Supper is waiting-chicken is fried.” Received by Stephen K. Bannon, 25 Jan. 2017.


Speeches or Oral presentations should include citations for sourced material. Oral citations should generally include the title, author, date and the author's credentials or title of publication. An oral citation should be introduced using a signal phrase. A signal phrase informs the reader of an upcoming paraphrase or quote by using the author's or creator's name to segue into the material. Some example of signal phrases are: According to..., In the article by..., As reported by...,As Smith and Jones state....; the former are just a few examples among many that provide a segue into cited material.

Digital Image from a Website:

vsmak350. Melting Bath. 29 March 2013. Photograph. Flickr.

   Accessed 30 Sept 2019.

General Steps in Creating a Citation for an Image

1) Author/Creator. Not available?  Skip to #2.
2) Title of image (in italics or quotation marks) Not available?  Image doesn’t have a
     title? Create brief descriptive title (Photograph of horse running.  Drawing of brain). 3)  Date that image was created or published. Not available?  Skip to #5.
4) Version-Medium of the image (Chart, Diagram, Graph, Illustration, Map, Photograph,
5) Names of any other contributors
6) Any numbers associated with the image (if applicable)
7A) The publisher of the image
7B)  Where image is housed-name institution and city where located
     (Container 1) —museum,   gallery, title of article, etc.
8) Title of where the image is located.  (Container 2). Title of web page or
     title of database—italicized.      
9) *The location of the images, such as a URL or DOI number (“How To”; Russel,
10)  Access date. (Suggested by Manhattanville College Library)

APA Examples


Joiner, T.E., Brown, J.S., & Kistner, J. (Eds.). (2006). The interpersonal, cognitive, and social  nature of depression. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.


Jung, C. G. (2011) The undiscovered self. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.


Mishra, V. (2008). Towards a theoretical critique of Bombay cinema. In R. Dudrah & J. Desai (Eds.), The Bollywood Reader (pp. 32-45). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.


Szanto, A. (Ed.). (2007). What Orwell didn't know: Propaganda and the new face of American  politics. New York, NY: PublicAffairs.



Articles retrieved from databases or from the web are cited in 3 different ways. If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier) then use the first example below. However, if no DOI is assigned then follow the second example. Finally, if the article is retrieved from a subscription database, use the third example.


Culver, J. L., Arnow, B. A., & Ketter, T. A. (2007). Bipolar disorder: Improving diagnosis and  optimizing integrated care. Journal of Clinical Psychology,63(1), 72-93. 



Silva, R.R., Matzner, F., Diaz, J., Singh, S., & Dummit III, E.S. (1999). Bipolar disorder in children  and adolescents: A guide to diagnosis and treatment. CNS Drugs,12(6),


           437-450.  Retrieved from 


Hauser, M. U. (2013). The significance of at-risk or prodromal symptoms for bipolar I disorder in  children and adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(1), 22-31.


           Retrieved from



National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from 


World Health Organization. (2015). Psychotropic drugs. Retrieved from



The OWL: Online Citation Help

APA at the OWL
APA at The OWL
"APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing)" (The OWL).

MLA Formatting and Style Guide at the OWL
OWL MLA Formatting and Style Guide
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page (The OWL).

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